Global environmental change, including climate change and natural resource degradation, is challenging food security around the world. This is particularly true in India, where climate change is expected to reduce yields and groundwater critical for irrigation is becoming depleted at unprecedented rates. In this region, yield losses are not only a matter of food security but also welfare, as agriculture is a primary source of livelihood for over 50% of India’s population. My research examines how environmental change is currently impacting agricultural production in India, and whether there are ways that farmers can adapt to mitigate the negative effects of this change. I utilize a mixed-methods approach, combining remote sensing and geospatial analyses with household-level and census datasets to examine farmer decision-making and behavior across large spatial and temporal scales. I will present research examining the impacts of warming temperatures and groundwater depletion on agricultural production, the adaptive strategies farmers adopt to reduce those impacts, and the potential for different policy interventions to enhance mitigation efforts in this globally important agricultural region.